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As I understand "slot" = ledger number, "value" = set of transaction. So сould you explain what happens when I(simple node with quorum slice) create a transaction ?

1) Do all nodes in stellar-network know about my transaction and decide whether to include it in the ledger or not? Or does the decision accept only the quorum to which I belong?

2) Does the closing ledger (with my transaction) broadcast to the network, and each node in network updates its full copy of ledgers? Or does each node build its "own" copy of ledgers (the same in the whole quorum)? If last true, it seems that non-intersecting quorums has different ledgers, and after their intersecting, future transactions may not pass.

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1) Do all nodes in stellar-network know about my transaction and decide whether to include it in the ledger or not? Or does the decision accept only the quorum to which I belong?

Yes, all nodes decide, or rather whatever nodes you submit it to. A malformed transaction or one on an invalid account won't get forwarded, while a valid transaction will. But when consensus runs, all nodes settle on the exact same set of transactions to apply in a slot.

2) Does the closing ledger (with my transaction) broadcast to the network, and each node in network updates its full copy of ledgers? Or does each node build its "own" copy of ledgers (the same in the whole quorum)? If last true, it seems that non-intersecting quorums has different ledgers, and after their intersecting, future transactions may not pass.

Closing the ledger (i.e., running consensus) does indeed broadcast the set of transactions ("the value") to all nodes, or all available nodes. Non-intersecting quorums are extremely bad, so be sure to include enough nodes in your quorum slice that you won't get forked from anyone you care about.

Note, however, that your scenario is a bit funny in that nodes are not generally the source of transactions. Usually account holders submit transactions to nodes, and nodes broadcast the transactions throughout the network. Of course, an account holder has a node that it cares about, so in this sense it sometimes makes sense to talk about the account holder and a particular validator as if they are the same party.

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