Does the transaction fee increase with larger transfers of XLM?
If so, by how much?
Transaction fees are calculated over the number of operations into a transaction
Each operation "costs" a base fee (currently* 100 stroops -> 0.00001 XLM) regardless of operation type or operation content
So if you have a transaction with only one payment operation, you will always* pay 0.00001 XLM. This apply both if you send 100XLM or 1B XLM
More info here
*Base fee amount could be changed in the future