I am wondering what the created_at timestamp in every transaction actually represents. Is the the time the transaction is signed or is it the time it was applied to the ledger? If it is not the later, how would I determine when a transaction actually was closed or applied to the ledger?

There isn't too much in the documentation about the created_at timestamp.

Here is an example transaction below with some fields excluded in the interest of brevity.

  "memo": "Send Payment",
  "id": "a0159b40e52aba5b7a8b15754bc3a7b95c0f3ee0b4338cbb7111ab5097821e5c",
  "paging_token": "216071214731264",
  "hash": "a0159b40e52aba5b7a8b15754bc3a7b95c0f3ee0b4338cbb7111ab5097821e5c",
  "ledger": 50308,
  "created_at": "2018-11-05T23:43:21Z"

1 Answer 1


Transaction envelope XDR itself does not contain the timestamp field (see example of decoded tx envelope here). Therefore created_at equals parent ledger timestamp, the same as value in closed_at field for data entries fetched from /ledgers endpoint.


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