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There is currently a new operation proposal on stellar's github to add a bump sequence. What does this mean, why is it being implemented, and how does it impact stellar developers?

Bump sequence allows to bump forward the sequence number of the source account of the operation.

Does this have to do with lightning network channels?

(Stellar mentions this in the lightning network section of their newly released roadmap)

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As far as I can understand it from the feature description, it has nothing to do with the lightning network.

The only effect from the mentioned operation is a bump (increment) of the account sequence number, which can be useful for complex use cases.

A typical use for this is to allow invalidating large ranges of transactions that were pre-shared with others when implementing complex multi-party transactions that form workflows.

The difference is that in the event that a transaction is invalidated by an operation from a different transaction, it would fail (collecting fees).

So if you are using the BumpSequenceOp it means that you decline all other concurrent transactions on the account. They will fail because BumpSequenceOp alters the account sequence.

The bump itself can be useful for the "smart contract" cases, for example, escrow operations.

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    It's actually a key enabler for the new lightning implementation that we are working on (we're working through some of the final design). There is going to be a blog post that details how to get it done. – MonsieurNicolas Jan 26 '18 at 1:05
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    Thanks for the answer, this makes sense. I will wait to mark it as correct though until the blog post that MonsieurNicolas mentioned comes out (in case new info needs to be edited in) – Noam Hacker Jan 26 '18 at 4:23

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